1. Introduction to WSL
Windows Subsystem for Linux (English: Windows Subsystem for Linux, WSL for short) is a compatibility layer for being able to run Linux binary executables (ELF format) natively on Windows 10 and Windows Server 2019.
This means that you can execute Linux programs on Windows with the help of
WSL. For developers, this makes a lot of sense.
High-level language development generally relies on a graphical
Integrated Development Environment (IDE), so the development environment systems are usually
OSX was developed from the
Unix system, so it comes with a command line terminal, which is developer friendly; while
Windows naturally supports graphical operations, and although there are
PowerShell terminals that support simple command lines, they are ultimately limited in functionality and cannot replace
For example, if you are developing on Windows and need to replace
184.108.40.206 for all configuration files in a directory and its subdirectories, you don’t know which configuration file contains the string to be replaced and there are many such files scattered around. It would be a lot of work to find it manually on
Windows or to write a
bat script, whereas on
Linux it only takes one command.
As you can see, development efficiency would be greatly enhanced if
Windows could use
Linux system programs.
Microsoft made an attempt to be compatible with
Unix like on
Windows systems, and first introduced
WSL1, which had a big problem with file system performance. Then came
WSL2, where the underlying implementation was different from
WSL1 and the file system performance was greatly improved. The difference between
WSL2 can be found at https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/wsl/compare-versions.
There are a lot of complaints about
WSL on the Internet, which is difficult to use. I personally practice, using
WSL2 can have a good development experience, but there are some headaches, here to record some solutions.
1.1 WSL vs Virtual Machine
If you want to run a
Linux distribution on a
Windows system, you can install a virtual machine before you have a
Compare a virtual machine with
WSL2, where the file system is completely isolated from the host; the latter is interconnected.
WSL2 implements the
Linux kernel based on
WSL is also a complete Linux system. Compared to virtual machines,
WSL2 is a bit lighter. But the supported distributions are also limited.
Recommendation: If you have no contact with
Linux and want to learn
Linux, it is better to install a
Linux virtual machine by yourself; and if you are very familiar with
Linux, you can try to install
WSL2, which will bring better development experience for developers.
2. WSL2 try
For WSL2 installation, please refer to the article: https://dowww.spencerwoo.com/
WSL2 migration reference answer: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/63252225/is-this-the-correct-way-to-import-a-wsl-export-overwriting-default-installati
WSL2 is installed on Windows
C drive by default, as the capacity of WSL2 usage becomes larger, it may cause a warning of space on
C drive. You can migrate
WSL2 to another logical volume using the above method. In fact, WSL, like a virtual machine, is stored in HOST as an image file, and the
WSL2-Ubuntu 20 installed on my Win10 already uses
40G of storage, as shown in the figure.
If you want to migrate WSL2 from your development environment computer to your home computer, it is also easy to copy the image file away and import it directly to the target machine.
I chose to install
Ubuntu 20.04 LTS from the Microsoft Store, and the next steps are based on that Ubuntu distribution.
WSL boot is to open the corresponding
Ubuntu or other distribution installed from the Microsoft Store (as shown below), and the
WSL shutdown can be used in
2.1 WSL dynamic IP, how to access from outside?
The network of
WSL2 is similar to the
NAT network mode set in the virtual machine, in this mode the
WSL2 instance accesses the external network with the help of the host’s NIC, the host can also access the
WSL2 instance, but other hosts in the host’s LAN cannot access the
WSL2 instance. As shown in the figure.
WSL2instance refers to a certain
WSL2supported distribution installed, I am using
Ubuntu 20.04 LTS.
The network address of
WSL2 changes dynamically (like docker container, the IP address changes on reboot), and no other host on the LAN can access it, which is too inconvenient.
Why is it inconvenient? If you start a service on
WSL2and your colleague can’t access it, it’s very troublesome.
How to solve it? You can map the port of
WSL2 to the host win by using
Windows port mapping.
The script is as follows.
It can be executed directly in the
PowerShell terminal, or it can be saved as a
.ps1 script and the script executed in the
PowerShell terminal, as follows.
2.2 How do I install Docker without installing Docker Desktop?
If you have a virtual machine installed locally, installing docker is easy. However, installing it on a
WSL2 instance will take some effort.
The official solution is to install
Docker Desktop for Windows on
WSL2, you can refer to https://docs.microsoft.com/zh-cn/windows/wsl/tutorials/wsl-containers.
If you don’t want to install
Docker Desktop but want to use
WSL2, refer to https://dev.to/bowmanjd/install-docker-on-windows-wsl-without-docker-desktop-34m9 for the The solution will be explained in detail next.
dockeris installed here for
dockeris not supported for
The following configuration is for
WSL2 Ubuntu 20.04 LTSfor docker configuration, other
WSL2supported distributions have differences in user and permission configuration, please refer to the original article.
2.2.1 Deleting an existing docker
2.2.2 Installing dependencies
2.2.3 Ubuntu package repository configuration
Set the os-release related environment variables.
apt Trusted Warehouse.
Add repository addresses and update the repository list so that
apt can use.
2.2.4 Installing Docker
Execute the command.
2.2.5 Setting docker command permissions
- You can execute with the root user. This is not the norm, for fear of
rm -rf /mishaps.
- Each time you use
sudo docker ..., a normal user using sudo will be operating as the
rootuser. The sudo function is configured in
/etc/sudoersfor normal users. The
WSL2 Ubuntuinstance is created with the normal user added to
In addition to that, you can also add users to a group and give the group the ability to execute a process without secrecy.
The docker process has the following password-free configuration in
dockergroup may have been created by the command that installed
docker, so if you go to
/etc/groupand there is no
dockergroup, you can use the command
sudo groupadd -g 999 docker.
In fact, there is a confusion here, because on Ubuntu systems a normal user is given the ability to join a group, and the group can be set up to operate a command as root with no security. If the command involves writing data, you may get a
Permission deniederror. For example, for
git, you need to set
sudo chown -R $USER:$USER $GIT_REPOto use it without problems. After checking, the reason may be that the above setting does execute the command as
rootuser, but the result of the command will trigger a new process that is executed as a normal user, so you need to have permissions on the directory.
2.2.6 Configuring dockerd
Set up a directory for the docker socket to use, and set permissions so that the group to which
docker belongs has permission to write to.
To set the
dockerd startup parameters, edit
/etc/docker/daemon.json and configure it as follows.
If there is no corresponding
/etc/docker/daemon.jsonfile, you can create it manually. The
insecure-registriessetting in the parameters means that the insecure
httpimage registry is allowed, and can be configured again if needed.
2.2.7 Starting dockerd
Use the command
sudo dockerd to start it. However, to start
dockerd in this way, we need to start a container like this.
We can start
dockerd with a script, which will be easier to use.
2.2.8 dockerd script launch
Save the script in
path, in this case in
docker-service to start
2.2.9 zsh setup to enable self-starting dockerd
sh used by this
WSL2 Ubuntu is
zsh, so you can set
WSL2 to boot
dockerd by adding the
source /usr/bin/docker-service startup script to
2.3 How do Win and WSL systems interoperate?
2.3.1 File system interoperability
Accessing WSL file system on win
explorer.exe on the wsl instance . , or directly open Windows Explorer and type:
\\wsl$\Ubuntu-20.04\opt . As follows.
This way to open the wsl file system directory, Windows users have read and write access to the
WSL normal user data, for the root user is read-only access. And use this way to open the file modification and save is very laggy, performance problems. Therefore, it is not recommended to modify the contents of wsl instance file system on Windows system .
Accessing the win file system on WSL
WSL2 maps a Windows disk logical volume to a mount file.
/mnt/c is the Windows C disk mount path;
/mnt/d is the Windows D file mount path and so on and so forth. If you want to open
D:\out.txt on a Win system with
WSL, you can just use:
Windows file system on
WSL will also have some performance issues, but not as severe as the performance delays of
Windows operating the
WSL file system. If it’s something like a larger git repository, it’s best to clone to the
WSL local filesystem operation.
2.3.2 Program call interoperability
WSL is able to read
PAHT variables directly and open them directly on wsl, e.g.
WSL is able to read
PAHT variables directly and open them directly on wsl.
There are times when this feature is useful, especially when you open graphical applications. For example, opening a text file in the
notepad++, etc. Remember that exe programs in the Win system PATH variable are only found in the WSL .
Of course, you can also execute
WSL commands on a
Windows system, such as
wsl ping in
The two commands can also be used in combination, for example, in
wsl ls -la | findstr "git". For more information, please refer to: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/wsl/filesystems
3. Problems with WSL2
3.1 WSL and VirtualBox for Hyper-v conflict
Error: Please enable the Virtual Machine Platform Windows feature and make sure virtualization is enabled in the BIOS.
This is because the
Hyper-v service was previously turned off when using VirtualBox. Set Hyper-v mode to be enabled automatically:
bcdedit /set hypervisorlaunchtype auto.
After Hyper-v service is started, you need to restart the computer for WSL to start normally.
After restarting the v2ray program, I found that I could not bind to
10809, but I did not find the port occupied by
netstat -ano|findstr 10809. I found that the port reserved by the Hyper-v program was probably occupied. The solution is as follows.
3.2 Centos6 has problems running on wsl2 docker
There is a problem running containers based on
centos6 images on
WSL2 docker, solution: add the following configuration to