There is no such thing as
x64 refer to the instruction set architecture of the
The instruction set can be understood as the hardware’s interface to the outside world. We run programs through the operating system scheduling, and the operating system then allows the hardware to compute.
If you let the hardware compute, such as some addition and multiplication, loops and so on, you need the interface provided by the hardware, that is, the instruction set. This is what we often call machine language, which has reached the bottom of the computer.
Instruction set architecture is divided into two main categories.
- Complex Instruction Set Computing (CISC) is simply understood to provide a lot of instructions, and they are also very complex. Represented by
x86architecture, the main target operating systems are Microsoft’s
UNIX, etc., can run on microprocessors with complex instruction set architectures.
- Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC) simply means that the instructions provided are few and simple, just some basic instructions. The
armarchitecture of the
ARMcompany is the representative. Currently there are
Linux, and most mobile operating systems including
Windows Phone, etc. running on the processor with compact instruction set.
The difference between the complex instruction set and the compact instruction set is when we program (write machine language code directly to run on the
CPU), for example, to implement multiplication. Depending on the instructions provided, one command may be enough for the complex instruction set, while for the simple instruction set we may need multiple instructions such as addition, loops, etc.
Hardware and software are also complementary processes, when the hardware provides simple functions, write software is more complex. When the hardware provides more functions, write the software is simpler.
x86 Architecture Development
x86 architecture first appeared in the
Intel 8086 CPU introduced in
8086 was selected for the
IBM PC three years later, and the
x86 became the standard platform for personal computers, making it the most successful
CPU architecture of all time. The
8086 was a
16-bit processor, followed by a series of processors with improvements to the
32-bit architecture, and now
x86 generally refers to the
Earlier processors in the series were named
80x86 with a number to indicate
80x86. The architecture was called
x86 because it ended with
86 and included
In addition to Intel, it also licensed its patents to the now more famous Supermicro (AMD), which produced the
CPU for the
x86 architecture. Then in 1999
AMD made public the first
64 bit set to extend
x86, an architecture called
AMD64. Later Intel also introduced a compatible processor named
Intel 64. Both are generally referred to as
x64, ushering in the
64 bit era of
There will be a question here, where did
Intel go and why didn’t they take the lead in making
64 bit? In fact,
intel did, in order to prevent other manufacturers from imitating, applied for many patents, and jointly designed with HP a new architecture
IA-64, but the biggest problem is that it is not compatible with the previous
x86, and the market response is relatively cold, and then cooled off.
Apple and the
RPM package administrators call this
64 bit architecture by
x86_64. Oracle and
Microsoft call it
BSD family and other
Linux distributions use
32 bit versions are called
Arch Linux calls this
64 bit architecture with
x86 architecture of the
CPU is basically
Arm architecture development
arm architecture is owned by the
ARM company, which does not produce chips but rather licenses them for profit. The specific development can be found here . From Nokia to Apple phones and Android phones, it established its dominant position in the smartphone market. In
ARM company was acquired by Softbank of Japan.
The Qualcomm Snapdragon series is the
arm architecture that you often hear about now.
Sometimes you need to choose your
CPU architecture when downloading the installer on
github. There are three architectures available for different operating systems,
32 bit architecture and
64 bit architecture, and
uname -a can be used in
linux to see the architecture of the
CPU instruction set architectures are currently in two main categories.
Complex instruction set is
x64 (also called x86-64, amd64) two kinds of architecture, the patent is in the hands of
AMD two companies, this architecture
CPU is mainly
AMD two companies, this
CPU commonly used in
PC machine, including
Simple instruction set is an architecture of
arm, the patent of which is in the hands of
ARM, the main companies of this architecture
CPU are Qualcomm, Samsung, Apple, Huawei Hesi, MediaTek and so on. This
CPU is commonly used in cell phones, including Android and Apple.
Just like the operating system, we can design a brand new operating system, but all kinds of software need to be redeveloped on the new system, and it is not sure if the software vendors are willing to do so.
Similarly, we can design a new instruction set architecture, but it’s still an ecological problem. Now Android and Apple’s operating systems are on the
arm architecture, so your new instruction set architecture still needs to be adapted to a new operating system by Android.
If it is compatible with the previous instruction set architecture or operating system, then it may not be able to get around the various patent issues.
So now all kinds of company interests are closely linked, cooperation to win together.